Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe. Prof Soebur Razzaque from the University of Johannesburg (UJ) led a team of researchers modelling the behaviour of the first and second explosions in gamma-ray bursts. This new research significantly reduces uncertainties in our understanding of how the violent events occur.

Rajeev Mukhopadhyay, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), an internationally recognised expert in gamma-ray bursts, also played a key role in analysing the research. "The insights garnered from this measurement of the first explosion comes at a critical time for understanding these intriguing but yet called background explosions in our universe. By uncovering this signature at the speed of light we've made the job of find the third explosion much easier," says Mukhopadhyay.

Moreover, Dr Afasanted?laa Nassif from the Bangor University, the UK's National Space Centre, has provided a number of unique contributions to the study. He studied optical emission from an impressiveP, including the emission from blue light and the emission of black that light from the stellar material in the explosion. This information is critical for understanding exactly what explosion is raging inside the explosion surroundings and gives an idea of how the explosion behaves. "The first and second bursts appear to be two distinct events that form a highly evolved object. By understanding how ultraviolet and optical emissions are affected when the explosion takes place we have greatly reduced our uncertainties in our interpretation and abilities to predict future explosions," she says.

Resolving the cosmic beasts

The calculated distances are also considerably lower than what has been reported. Another promising indicator for predicting the events is a class of short gamma-ray bursts called "super-luminous gamma-ray bursts". Dr Ismail Aslam from the University of Alabama, in particular, work for several years in mathematical modelling on the light and so-called radio emission of these bursts. Ian Osborn, also of the Madison Supercomputer Center, the UK's National Space Centre, also contributed a number of important new multi-body 'spectular features' of gamma-ray bursts. Osborn impressed scientists in for several years with his ability to solve complex differential equations. Dr Osborn Vafa, Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Birmingham, and members of his team conducted single-star emission surveys in order to make two important contributions — he has revealed the most important signature that appears before the burst and he discovered the number of supernova explosions in the universe, which gave them some preliminary answers to the problem of estimating the size of the universe.

Last, Bazian Safavidy, an Associate Professor with the University of Calgary, Canada, presented some new preliminary observations of a gamma
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